The colorectal cancer appears by a malign transformation, uncontrolled, carcinogenic of the mucosal epithelial cells which cover the surfaces of the rectum and the colon. Concerning the risk factors for the colorectal cancer, the incidence of it at a global level and the prevention measures, our colleague, Dr. Paula Pruteanu, Oncology Specialist at the Medisprof Clinic, Cluj-Napoca (Romania), will talk about it.
On which risk factors are based the apparitions of the colorectal cancer?
The risk to develop a colorectal cancer depends on a lot of factors, related to the life style but also on genetic determinant factors.
Concerning the risk factors linked to the life style, we can list:
- The diet with high level of calories, lipids and poor in fibers,
- Colon inflammatory diseases (hemorrhagic rectocolitis or Crohn’s Disease). The risk of developing a colorectal cancer with hemorrhagic rectocolitis varies with the age when the disease starts (the younger the diagnostic is, the higher is the risk), the disease extension and the activity duration of the disease.
- The age: about 70% of the patients are around 65 when they discover the diagnostic, but only 3% of the colorectal cancers are diagnosed to patients under 40.
- The obesity
- The lack of activity
Concerning the risk factors from genetic determination, there are:
- The hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. The mutation carriers which determine the apparition of the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal syndrome represent an bigger risk to develop a colorectal cancer, just like other cancer types: endometrial, ovarian, pancreatic or gastric cancer.
- Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: it represents less than 1% of all the colorectal cancer and is characterized by the presence of multiple adenoma in the colon and rectum area. The patients with this syndrome can also present extra-colon manifestation such as central nervous system tumors or gastric polyps.
How frequently is this type of cancer met?
The colorectal cancer occupies the third place in term of frequency for the men, and the second for the women, representing 10% of diagnosed cancers in the world. Every year, around one million cases are diagnosed globally.
There is an important geographic variation regarding to the incidence (quantity of new diagnostic) concerning the colorectal cancer. Last year, it was possible to observe an increase incidence in which was previously reported a smaller quantity of cases (Spain, Eastern Europe). This increase of the incidence reflects the change in the population life style: obesity, lack of activity, an increase of red meat consumption and smoking.
In another part, in countries with higher risk for colorectal cancer, we observed a stabilization of the case quantity (Western Europe, Australia) or even a decrease of the incidence (USA, Canada) which more likely due to the implementation of the screening procedures and resection of the premalignant polyps.
What are the measures of preventions for the colorectal cancer?
A healthy life style can reduce the colorectal cancer apparition risk: by avoid smoking, a moderate consumption of alcohol, frequent physical exercises, keeping a normal level of fat, an equilibrated alimentation with a high consumption of vegetables, fruits and cereals.
The early detection of the colorectal cancer substantially increases the treatment and survival chances. The deaths due to colorectal cancer could be avoided by a rigorous and respected program, specially created for people who present higher risks of cancer.
The Medisprof team supports the prevention in oncology and suggests you to make a periodical control in order to early trace the development of one of the mentioned cancer.
When was your last control? Schedule a control at the Medisprof Oncology Clinic by calling the following number: 0264-439-270