At a global level, the bronco-pulmonary represents the main death cause by cancer since the beginning to the 60’s and reached the mortality due to breast cancer at the beginning of the 90’s. Currently, the incidence and mortality of bronco-pulmonary cancer are still increasing, but it has been observed a reduction of new cases in countries where was implemented smoking fighting, especially in developed countries.
In Romania the bronco-pulmonary cancer represents the most frequent type of cancer for men, almost 11 000 cases are diagnosed every years, majority of these are men (9.000 cases). Within the last years, the bronco-therapy women’s incidence is increasing more than men, most probably due to the role of estrogen in the increased risk of adeno-carcinoma.
Because of the absence of symptoms in early stages, approximately 40 to 55% of the cases are advanced when diagnosed; the treatment mainly consists in chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Following, Dr. Cristina Smolenschi, Medical specialist in oncology at the Medisprof clinic, presents the risk factors of the bronco-pulmonar cancer.
Risk factors of the bronco-pulmonary cancer
Smoking is the main risk factor in bronco-pulmonary cancer, responsible for approximately 85-90% of cases. A smoker has a 20 time bigger risk to develop a cancer (example – if a patient smokes 25 cigarettes per day, the risk of making a bronco-pulmonary cancer is 25 time bigger than non-smoker). Studies shows that the risk of bronco-pulmonary cancer is related with the cumulated dose of cigarettes, i.e. the quantity and type of cigarettes, the age when the smoker started and the quantity of cigarettes per day.
2. The Radon
The Radon is a product from the Radium, one of the elements used for the decay of Uranium from the earth crust, an element which is found in variable quantity in rocks and soils around the globe. The Radon is radioactive, which means that it is continually decaying itself, emitting radiations in the mean time. Also, it is a gas without color, odor or gust, and therefore is impossible to detect with human senses.
In 2011, the Worldwide Health Organization classified the Radon in the category of the substances which represents a major threat for health. The Radon represents the second risk factor after smoking, implied in the etiology of the bronco-pulmonary.
The risk of apparition of this cancer is correlated with the quantity of radon to which the patient was exposed, within the duration and consumption of tobacco.
The Asbestos represents a fiber form of many minerals from the silicates class, used a lot in construction structure materials (roof). Most exposed people are the one who works with direct contact with Asbestos, such as mines or fabrics. Studies showed that the exposition to smoke and Asbestos is really dangerous.
4. Atmospheric air pollution
There are evidences that the exposition to air pollutants increases the risk of bronco-pulmonary cancer. The quantity of pollutants in the air varies depending of the area. The most harmful pollutants implied in carcino-genesis are the aromatic hydrocarbons, exhaust gases, benzene.
5. Professional exposition
The exposition to chemical elements and toxic substances used in many industries and professions can easily increase the risk of developing a bronco-pulmonary cancer. People who work in those domains are mostly exposed. Among these substances, we can mention the arsenic, the beryllium, the chemical substances used in the rubber production, the substances used in the different surfaces paintings, the chrome, the cobalt. The risk of developing a cancer increase significantly if this is associated to smoking.
6. Familial and personal antecedents
The patients who developed a bronco-pulmonary cancer will have a risk of developing a second bronco-pulmonary cancer. First relatives of a person with antecedents of bronco-pulmonary can have an increased risk than without a familial history. This risk can be attributed also to common factors such as smoking and other carcinogens factors, as the radon concentration in some places or some regions.
7. Anterior pulmonary disease
Patients, known with any breathing affections with can create scars/fibrosis at the lung level, has a risk of developing a bronco-pulmonary cancer. We can mention the TBC, COPD, the persistence of one of these infection.
8. Ionizing radiation
The risk of developing a bronco-pulmonary cancer increase in patients who have be exposed to ionizing radiation. Which means that patients, who made radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma or breast cancer, present a risk of developing bronco-pulmonary cancer.
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